Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a chronic mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings that fluctuate between episodes of mania and depression. These mood shifts can be intense and disruptive, significantly impacting a person’s daily life, relationships, and overall well-being.
During manic episodes, individuals with bipolar disorder experience an elevated mood, increased energy, and a heightened sense of self-esteem. They may engage in impulsive and risky behaviors, have racing thoughts, and require less sleep. On the other hand, depressive episodes are marked by persistent sadness, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, feelings of worthlessness, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, and thoughts of death or suicide.